Bài 1: The most common sports played in New Zealand
The chart illustrates the proportion of boys and girls who participated in various sports in New Zealand in 2002.ext here.
Overall, it is clear that there were significant differences between the percentage of boys and girls who took part in most of these sports. However, the proportion who played basketball and tennis was similar.
Among girls, 25% played netball and a slightly lower percentage - 22% - enjoyed swimming. Approximately 8% and 7% of girls played tennis and basketball respectively – a figure which was only slightly lower than boys for both sports. While 6% of girls played soccer and 5% took part in athletics, less than 5% of girls participated in martial arts and cricket. Finally, participation in other, unspecified, sports totalled around 10%. (*)
In contrast, among boys, only 1% played netball. The sports with the highest participation figures were soccer, swimming and cricket, with 25%, 13% and 12% respectively. These were followed by cricket, martial arts, tennis and basketball which all had figures of between 11% and 8%. About 18% of boys played other sports.
Bài 2: Oil Production Capacity
The bar chart illustrates the estimated amount of oil produced (*) in 6 countries between 1990 and 2010, measured in millions of barrels per day.
Overall, oil production capacity tended to increase during this 20-year period. The figures for Saudi Arabia were significantly higher than in the other countries, while production was lowest in Qatar.
From 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in oil production in Saudi Arabia. In 1990, just over 8 million barrels per day were produced and this rose steadily, reaching a peak of over 14 million barrels per day in 2010. In contrast, the smallest producer was Qatar. Despite a slight increase in 2000, production in Qatar remained relatively stable at less than 1 million barrels per day.
The other countries saw a slight rise in oil production over the period. The estimated figure for Iran in 1990 was over 3 million barrels per day, compared with around 2 million barrels in the other three countries. Although production did not increase in 2000 in the UAE, the amount of oil produced peaked in 2010 in Iran at over 4 million barrels and at almost 4 million barrels in Iraq, Kuwait and the UAE.
Bài 3: Fast food
The bar chart compares expenditure by three income groups on three types of fast food in the UK in 1990.
Overall, while all three income groups bought fast foods, there were differences in the type of fast food eaten by each group. It is also clear that the low income group spent the lowest amount.
People in the high income group spent the most money. They spent about 42 pence per week on hamburgers, and 17 and 19 pence per week on fish and chips and pizza respectively. In the average income group, consumers also spent more on hamburgers than on the other fast foods. Their spending on burgers was 33 pence per week, although fish and chips came a closesecond at 25 pence. The lowest expenditure was just 12 pence on pizza.
People spent more on fish and chips than on burgers and pizza in the low income group. However, spending was relatively low, at just 17 pence per week on fish and chips, 14 pence on hamburgers and only 7 pence on pizza.
Bài 4: The scores of teams A, B and C over four different seasons
The chart compares the points scored by three different teams over a four-year period from 2002-2005.
Overall, the scores of all the teams fluctuated during the period shown. In addition, the points scored by team B were generally far higher than the scores of the other teams.
In 2002, team B achieved its highest total, 82 points. In contrast, teams A and C had scores of 5 and 10 points, respectively. The period between 2002 and 2004 witnessed a dramatic increase in the scores of team A, reaching 35 points in 2004. The totals of team C remained relatively stable at between 10 and 15 points, whereas the scores for team B fell steadily from their peak in 2002 to a low figure of 43 points in 2004.
There was then a rise in the team B score to 55 points in 2005. On the other hand, team A saw a fall in its score to 8 points, slightly higher than team C with 5 points.
Bài 5: The different modes of transport used to travel to and from work in one European city
The chart illustrates how travellers commuted to work in a European city in three different years from 1960 to 2000.
Overall, the proportion of commuters who used cars increased steadily over the period, whereas the percentage of people who travelled by bike or on foot fell dramatically.
In 1960, almost 35% of travellers walked to work. The proportion of those who used bikes and buses was 25% and 18% respectively, while in contrast only about 5% of people travelled by car. However, in 1980 the percentage of people who went to work by bus reached 26%, making it the most popular means of transport in that year. Although the proportion of commuters who used cars to go to work saw an increase to around 23%, the percentage of travellers who used bikes fell to 20%, and the figure for those who went on foot was slightly lower at 17%.
Over 35% of travellers used cars to go to work in this city in 2000, overtaking the figures for bus users (16%). The proportion of those who travelled on foot and by bike decreased to 9% and 6% respectively.
Bài 6: The division of household tasks by gender in Great Britain
The bar chart compares the number of minutes which men and women in Britain spend each day on various household chores.
Overall, it is clear that women spend more time on these chores than men. Men spend more time than women on gardening/pet care and on maintenance/odd jobs, but significantly less time on all the other household tasks.
Females spend the most time on cooking/baking/washing up, with a daily average of 74 minutes, compared with 30 minutes for men. There is also a significant difference in terms of cleaning the house and playing with the children. Women spend 58 and 45 minutes respectively each day on these activities. In contrast, men spend only 13 and 20 minutes on each of these. Men spend just 2 minutes daily on average on washing/ironing clothes and sewing, far less than the 25 minutes for women.
There are only two tasks on which males spend more time than females. The figure for gardening/pet care is almost 50 minutes for men and 21 minutes for women. Although women do maintenance/odd jobs around the house, this is less than 10 minutes per day, compared with 26 minutes for men.
Bài 7: The amount of leisure time
The bar chart illustrates how much leisure time per week was enjoyed by males and females of five categories of employment status in 1998-1999.
Overall, men enjoyed more hours of free time per week than women in three of the categories. However, in two categories only figures for women are shown– employed part-time and housewives.
Among the full-time employed, men had slightly more leisure time than women, with almost 50 hours per week, compared with 40 hours for women. Unemployed and retired people of both genders enjoyed the most hours of leisure. Among men, the unemployed had about 85 hours of free time per week, the same figure as retired men. Unemployed and retired women had slightly less leisure time, and the figure for both of these female categories was around 75 hours.
Housewives enjoyed 50 hours of free time, a little more than women who were employed part time, who had just over 40 leisure hours each week. There are no figures shown for men in either of these categories.
Bài 8: Sales of games
The bar chart shows how worldwide sales of games software, CDs and DVDs/videos changed in the period from 2000 to 2003.
Overall, the sales of games software and DVDs/videos increased steadily each year.
However, CDs enjoyed the highest sales throughout this period.
In 2000, CD sales were much higher than those of the other two products. They totalled 35 billion dollars, compared with 18 billion and 15 billion dollars for DVDs/videos and games sofware, respectively. Global sales of games software grew steadily, reaching a figure of 18 billion dollars in 2002, while the figure for DVDs/videos went up to about 27 billion dollars in the same year.
In contrast, worldwide sales of CDs witnessed a gradual decline during the years shown, falling to 32 billion dollars in 2003. This was still slightly higher than sales of DVDs/videos, which reached a peak of 30 billion dollars in 2003. In that year, games software sales also rose again, finishing at 19 billion dollars.
Bài 9: Marriages in America
The first bar chart compares the number of marriages and divorces in America over a period of 30 years, beginning in 1970. The second chart illustrates the proportion of adult US citizens according to their marital status in the years 1970 and 2000.
Overall, the number of marriages fell over the period, although the second chart shows that the percentage of couples who were married remained significantly higher than the other categories.
In 1970 and 1980, there were 2.5 million married couples in the USA. However, the figure fell to about 2.3 million in 1990 and then to 2 million in 2000. The same period witnessed a fluctuating trend for divorcees. From 1 million in 1970, the number rose to almost 1.5 million in 1980 before falling steadily to 1 million in 2000.
The vast majority of Americans were married. The percentage fell, however, from 70% in 1970 to 60% in 2000. In contrast, the figures for those who were ‘never married’ and those who were ‘divorced’ both rose between these two years, from 15% to 20%, and from 3% to about 10% respectively. Finally, the proportion of ‘widowed’ declined from 9% in 1970 to 6% in 2000.
Bài 10: Imprisonment statistics
The bar chart illustrates how many people were imprisoned in five different countries over a period of 50 years.
Overall, it is clear that the prison population fluctuated in most of the countries shown. The only consistent trend was in Britain, where the number of prisoners increased steadily.
In 1930, the number of prisoners in Britain was only 30,000, which was significantly lower than in the other countries. However, the number grew steadily, reaching over 80,000 in 1980. In contrast, Canada had the highest prison population in 1930 with 120,000 inmates. Despite fluctuations, the figure declined over the period to 90,000 in 1980.
Prisoner numbers in the USA were generally high, although the figures fluctuated. They rose from 100,000 in 1930 to 130,000 ten years later, but by 1980 they reached a peak of almost 140,000. In 1930, the prison population in New Zealand also numbered 100,000, but the number then fell dramatically by half by 1950, before increasing to over 80,000 in 1980. Finally, while there were 70,000 prisoners in Australia in 1930, the number went down to about 40,000 in 1950. However, in 1970 the figure rose again to 65,000 before falling to just 50,000 in 1980.
Bài 11: Reasons for study
The first bar chart compares different age groups of students in terms of whether they study for career or interest. The second chart illustrates employer support per age group.
Overall, a higher percentage of students under 40 study to further their careers, whereas most over 50s study for interest. Those aged under 26 receive most support from employers. Although 80% of students under 26 study for career reasons, this proportion declines steadily to 70% of those aged 26-29 and just under 60% for the 30-39 age group. Of those students aged 40-49, 40% study for their career while the same proportion study for interest. However, 70% of those aged 50 or above study for interest, compared with less than 20% who pursue career-related studies.
The age group with the highest percentage of employer support are those under 26. Over 60% of these students are supported by employers, although the figure is still high for the 26-29 year-olds, half of whom receive employer support. In contrast, the lowest proportion of students who benefit from support by employers are the 30-39 age group, at only 35%. However, of those students aged 40-49 and over 50, 38% and 45% respectively receive employer support.
Bài 12: Film production in 5 countries
The bar chart compares 5 countries in terms of the percentages of films which they made from 2007 to 2009.
Overall, three of the countries witnessed an increase in the percentage of films which were produced, while two countries experienced a slight decline in their figures.
The percentage figures for films produced in countries B, D and E all rose slightly. Country B saw a significant rise from about 34% in 2007 to 50% in 2009. The increases were more modest – about 2% - in countries D and E, reaching 15% and 7% respectively in 2009.
In contrast, there was a slight decline in the figures for countries A and C. The percentages were highest in country A, but fellsteadily from 80% in 2007 to 76% in 2009. In country C, the figures fluctuated. From 20% in 2007, the percentage increased slightly the following year, before falling to 19% in 2009.
Bài 13: Renewable energy of the total supply
The bar chart compares four countries in terms of renewable energy as a proportion of the total supply in three different years.
Overall, a much higher percentage of total energy was supplied by renewables in Norway and Iceland than in the other two countries. Norway and Germany saw an increase in the proportion of renewables to supply energy in each of the years.
In 2000, renewable energy accounted for 60% of the total supplied in Norway and 50% in Iceland. In contrast, the figures for Australia and Germany were both only around 10%.
In Norway, the renewable energy used increased to 65% and almost 80% in 2004 and 2007. There was also a steady increase in the figures in Germany, to 15% in 2004 and then reaching a peak of 18% in 2007. The figures fluctuated in Iceland and Australia, with the highest percentage of renewable energy supply recorded in 2004, at about 60% and 10% respectively. These figures then fell slightly to 55% in Iceland and to just below 10% in Australia.
Bài 14: Population in UK and Wales
The first chart illustrates the population size in England and Wales between 1700 and 2000, while the second chart compares the birth and death rates over the same period.
Overall, the population increased significantly throughout this period. In contrast, birth and death rates fluctuated, although the annual death rate was always lower than the birth rate.
The population stood at 5 million in 1700. This figure more than doubled to 11 million in 1800 and by 1900 it had reached 27 million. The population reached 40 million in 2000.
The annual birth rate in 1700 was 30 per one thousand people. There was a rise to 38 per thousand by 1800. However, the birth rate then declined, and the same figure of 25 per thousand was recorded for the years 1900 and 2000. The death rate witnessed a similar fluctuation. In 1700, the death rate was 25 per thousand and this then rose to reach a peak of 31 per thousand in 1800. The trend then followed the same pattern as the birth rate. There was a fall to 20 per thousand in 1900 and a further dramatic fall in 2000 to a figure of 9 per thousand.
Bài 15: Government spending on roads and transpor
The chart compares the expenditure of four countries on roads and transport at five year intervals between 1990 and 2005.
Overall, of these countries Portugal spent the highest proportion of its total budget on roads and transport. In contrast, over the period the UK government spent the lowest percentage.
In 1990, the proportion of spending on roads and transport in Portugal was 27%, ahead of Italy with 22%. The percentage then declined steadily in Portugal, falling to 20% in 2005. However, in Italy, the percentages fluctuated. They fell to 20% in 1995, reached a peak of 23% in 2000 and then fell again by 4% in 2005.
The figures also fluctuated in the UK and the USA, although they were consistently lower in these two countries when compared with Portugal and Italy. Over the period, there was a decline in the percentage of government expenditure on roads and transport in the UK, from 10% in 1990 to 8% in 2005. In contrast, the percentage rose over the period in the USA, from 11% in 1990 to 15% in 2005.
Bài 16: Populations in three cities
The bar charts compare the population of Jakarta, Shanghai and Sao Paulo in 1990 and 2000 and also the predicted populations of those cities in 2000.
Overall, Jakarta had a lower population than Shanghai and Sao Paulo in 1990. The population had grown in Jakarta and Sao Paulo by 2000, although the increase was lower than predicted.
In 1990, the population in Jakarta totalled 11 million, compared with Sao Paulo and Shanghai at 13 million and 14 million respectively. There was an actual increase in two of the cities by 2000. Sao Paulo saw a dramatic rise to over 17 million inhabitants, while in Jakarta the population grew to about 13 million. In contrast, the number of people living in Shanghai fell slightly to 13 million.
However, in each city the predicted figures were consistently higher than the actual population figures. The most inaccurate estimation was for Shanghai, where the population was anticipated to rise to 17 million. In Jakarta, the number of inhabitants was projected to reach a slightly lower figure of 16 million. Finally, an increase to a total population of over 20 million was estimated for Sao Paulo.
Bài 17: Waste disposal in 1 European country in four years 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008
The bar chart illustrates the average amount of waste disposed of annually in a European country from 2005 to 2008 in terms of landfill, burning and dumping at sea.
Overall, it is clear that the average amount of waste disposal using landfill declined over the period. In contrast, there was an increase in the amount of waste incinerated.
In 2005, landfill accounted for the disposal of 1800 million tonnes of waste. This figure fell to 1200 million tonnes in the following year, and continued to decline until 2008, when the amount was just one-third of the figure for 2005. Although most waste went into landfill until 2007, the amount of rubbish disposed of by burning exceeded the figure for landfill in 2008.
While only 500 million tonnes of waste was burned in 2005, this amount rose steadily to reach a peak of 900 million tonnes at the end of the period. However, these years saw fluctuations in the amount of rubbish dumped at sea. From a figure of 500 million tonnes in 2005, there was an increase to over 600 million tonnes in the next year, followed by a steady decline to about 550 million tonnes in 2008.
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