Trong các dạng bài Writing Task 1, dạng bài line graph rất thường gặp trong các bài thi IELTS. Tuy đây không phải là thách thức lớn, nhưng để đạt được số điểm cao là điều không dễ dàng, vậy nên các em cần thiết phải học kĩ càng cách viết dạng Line graph trong IELTS WRITING TASK 1 mà IELTS TUTOR đã giới thiệu em vào các tuần trước nhé!
Dưới đây là một số bài mẫu dạng line graph với cấu trúc bài và từ vựng tốt để các em tham khảo.
Bài 1: Birth rates of China and the USA
The line graph compares birth rates in China and the US and how these rates changed from
1920 to 2000
Overall, the birth rates of both nations decreased over the period of 80 years. Although the
two trends were similar in terms of a general decline, the birth rate of the USA in most years was higher than that of China.
In the 1920-1935 period, the birth rate in America fluctuated, although it always remained
above 10%. However, in the following decade, the American birth rate fell sharply to below
5%. In the 1950s, the figure for the USA increased significantly to exactly 15%, which was
its highest point during the 80-year period. Throughout the remainder of the period, there was a gradual decline in the US birth rate, which fell to 7% by the year 2000.
Over the same period, the birth rate in China varied more significantly than in the US. It
dropped to 5% from 1940 to 1945 before reaching the highest point of the whole line graph, 20%, in 1950. By contrast, 5 years later, the birth rate in China decreased rapidly by over 10%, falling to approximately 2% in 2000
Bài 2: Price changes for fresh fruits and vegetables, sugars and sweets, and carbonated drinks
The line graph provides information about changes in price in the USA of three different food product groups from 1979 to 2009, and the overall trend in the consumer price index over this 30-year period.
Overall, it is clear that prices increased for the three food product groups, despite fluctuations. Only the increase in the prices for fresh fruits and vegetables was significantly higher than the rise in the general consumer price index.
All the lines on the graph have the same starting figure in 1979. Over the period, the consumer price index rose steadily from around 60 in 1979 to over 200 in 2009. Prices for sugar and sweets and carbonated drinks showed similar trends. Although their prices also rose, they were consistently below the consumer price index average after 1987. After many minor fluctuations, the number for sugar and sweets was 200 on the graph in 2009, higher than the final figure for carbonated drinks at 150.
Prices rose sharply for fresh fruits and vegetables, particularly after 1989. From the same figure of about 60 at the start of the period, the prices finished at roughly 330 on the index in 2009.
Bài 3: The consumption of fish and some different kinds of meat
The line graph illustrates the amount of four different types of food which people in a European nation consumed from 1979 to 2004.
Overall, fish was the least commonly used food in the European country throughout the period shown. Also, the expenditure on beef, lamb and fish decreased, while there was a fluctuating increase in the figure for chicken.
It can be seen from the graph that in 1979, the amount of beef which was consumed was the highest, at about 220 grams per person per week. The figures for chicken and lamb were lower, at under 150 grams and exactly 150 grams respectively. However, fish accounted for the lowest number with only about 60 grams eaten (*)
In the period between 1979 and 2004, the country witnessed a significant growth to around 250 grams in the consumption of chicken. By contrast, around 50 grams of lamb was eaten, compared to about 40 grams of fish in 2004. Although the consumption of beef reached a peak of about 240 grams in 1983, this fell steadily to just over 100 grams in 2004.
Bài 4: Tourists to England who visited four different attractions in Brighton.
The graph illustrates the proportion of visitors to England who went to four different tourist attractions in Brighton between 1980 and 2010.
Overall, it is clear that the percentage visiting the Pier and the Pavilion increased over the period, while the proportion of visitors to the other attractions fell.
In 1980, only 10% of tourists to England went to Brighton Pier. Despite some minor fluctuations, this figure rose from about 12% in 2000 to 22% in 2010. The percentage visiting the Pavilion also increased from 23% in 1980 to almost 50% in 1995. However, this figure then declined, to 35% in 2000 and then to about 30% in 2010, slightly higher than the Festival.
The most popular Brighton attraction in 1980 for visitors to England was the Festival. Although 30% of these attended the Festival in 1980, by 2010 this percentage had fallen slightly to 28%. In 1980, the figure for visitors to the Art Gallery was 21%. It rose to a peak of 38%, but this then decreased dramatically to less than 10% in 2010. It was, therefore, the least popular of the attractions at the end of the period.
Bài 5: The amount of money spent on books in Germany, France, Italy and Austria
The line graph compares the expenditure on books from 1995 to 2005 in four different countries.
Overall, it is clear that people in Germany spent more on books than those in the other three countries. However, over the 10-year period, spending on books increased in all four countries.
In 1995, $80 million was spent on books in Germany. The spending figures for France and Italy were similar in 1995, at $55 million and $50 million, respectively, whereas the figure for Austria was much lower at just $30 million. Despite some fluctuations, the amount of money spent on books in Germany continued to be higher than in the other countries throughout the period, and spending reached a peak of almost $100 million in 2005.
There was a steady increase in the expenditure on books in France, and this finally reached a figure of $75 million in 2005. This was similar to the figure for Austria, where the money spent on books rose sharply from $40 million in 2001 to $72 million in 2005. In Italy, spending on books saw a gradual increase during the 10 years, reaching a final figure of just over $60 million in 2005.
Bài 6: Income differences between genders
The line graph illustrates the income gap between genders in five countries at ten-year intervals between 1978 and 2008.
Overall, there was a reduction in the percentage difference between the incomes of men and women for most of the period. However, after 1998, the percentage gap in gender incomes actually widened in Australia.
In 1978, there was a difference of almost 50% between the incomes of men and women in Japan, compared with about 34% in the USA. Both countries then saw a steady reduction in these figures, so that by 2008 the percentage gaps were 40% and 28% respectively.
There was also a fall in the income gap between genders in the UK and France. In those countries, the perecentage difference in income between men and women was lower than in Japan or the USA. From figures of about 30% and 20% respectively in the UK and France,
the percentage decline was gradual, to 26% in the UK and 18% in France by 2008. In contrast, in 1978 the lowest income gap was in Australia. While this remained at about 8% until 1998, it then rose to 24% at the end of the period, overtaking the figure for France.
Bài 7: Cinama attendance by age group
The line graph illustrates the proportion of people in four different age groups who went to the cinema in Great Britain from 1984 to 2000.
Overall, the percentages for cinema attendances rose throughout this period among all the age groups. In percentage terms, attendance at the cinema was highest among the 15-24 age group.
In 1984, about 17% of those aged 15-24 went to the cinema, in contrast to only 1% of those aged over 35. Of the 7-14 age group, 10% attended cinemas compared with 4% of those
aged between 25 and 35. During the following years, the trends fluctuated for all the four age groups, although the proportions increased for all ages.
Having reached a peak of 59% in 1999, attendance among 15-24 year olds was 55% in 2000. Although the proportions remained the lowest among the age groups, the percentage of the over 35s who went to the cinema witnessed a steady increase to 14% in 2000. In the same year, the figures for the 7-14 and 25-35 year olds were the same at 32%.
Bài 8: Car production in the US
The chart compares the average number of hours taken to produce a car by four companies in the USA from 1998 to 2005.
Overall, the amount of time spent on the production of a car fell during the period. General Motors reduced the production time by more hours than the other three manufacturers.
In 1985, General Motors took 32 hours to produce a vehicle, compared with 28 hours spent by Ford. In contrast, Toyota and Honda were both able to manufacture a car in only 22 hours. While production times generally decreased in the following years, the figures fluctuated. For example, in 2001, Ford spent almost 32 hours on the production of a car.
There was a slight reduction in the average production time per car for Toyota and Honda, so that each company produced a car in 20 hours by 2005. The figures for the other companies also saw a decrease by 2005. The time of manufacture fell steadily over the period to 22 hours in the case of General Motors. However, in the case of Ford, the time spent fluctuated considerably, falling to just below 22 hours in 2005.
Bài 9: Oil use of major consumers
The line graph compares four areas in terms of the amount of oil consumed per day in a 22-year period starting in 2009.
Overall, from 2015, oil consumption in Western Europe/Japan and also in the US is predicted to decline, in contrast to the expected increase in China and the Middle East. The US will remain the major consumer throughout the period.
In 2009, the number of barrels of oil consumed daily in the US totalled almost 10 billion. The figures were considerably lower for Western Europe/Japan at 4 billion, and China and the Middle East at 2 billion barrels each. While consumption fell in Western Europe/Japan by 2015, and remained stable in the US, there was an increase in oil consumption in China and the Middle East.
By 2030, the number of barrels of oil consumed daily in the US is anticipated to fall to about 4 billion, while consumption is expected to decrease to 2 billion barrels in Western, Europe/Japan. By contrast, a rise in the amount of oil consumed is predicted in the Middle East, reaching a peak of 3 billion barrels per day in 2030. This is slightly lower than the projected figure for China.
Bài 10: Changes in UK birth rate
The line graph compares the changes in the birth rate among women in six age groups between 1973 and 2008.
Overall, it is clear that the birth rates decreased among women under 20 and among women aged between 20 and 29. The birth rates also fell among women over 40.
In 1973, the highest number of births – 140 per 1000 people in the population – was recorded among women who were aged 25-29. This compared with figures of 125 and 60 for women aged 20-25 and women under 20, respectively. Among women over 40, the birth rate was 20. There was a decline in the birth rate, despite occasional fluctuations, for all these age groups over the 35-year period. For example, the 2008 figures indicate a birth rate of 40 for the under 20 age group, and a steady fall to about 95 for the 20-25 year-olds.
In contrast, the birth rate for women aged 30-35 rose gradually from 75 in 1973 to 82 in 2008. There was also an increase in the birth rate among the 35-39 year-olds, rising from 40 in 1973 to reach a peak of 62 from 2000 to2008.
Bài 11: Percentage of female MPs
The line graph compares the proportion of women as members of parliament in Germany, Italy, France, the UK and Belgium between 2000 and 2012.
Overall, the percentage of female MPs rose in all the countries over this period, while by 2012 Italy had the highest proportion of women members of parliament.
The figures for Germany, Italy and France show similar trends. In Germany, the percentage increased steadily from 33% in 2000 to 37% in 2012. In France, there was also a steady increase from 25% in 2000 to 32% by the end of the period. The rise was more significant in Italy, from 27% in 2000 to 34% in 2008 before reaching almost 40% in 2012.
In 2000, the proportion of female members of parliament was just 3% in the UK, the lowest figure of the five countries. However, there was a dramatic increase to 20% in 2008 and then to 23% four years later. In contrast, the figure for Belgium was 17% of women MPs in 2000. This percentage saw a steady rise to reach a peak of almost 25% in 2008, before falling to 23%, the same proportion as in the UK, in 2012.
Bài 12: Value of Australian trading with China, Japan and the United States
The graphs below show the value of Australian trading with China, Japan and the United States. (Value is estimated in term of Australian dollars - billions)
The line graphs compare Australian trade with three countries from 2004 to 2009, calculated in Australian dollars.
Overall, it is clear that the value of trade with the USA remained relatively constant, while the value of exports and imports to and from Japan and China fluctuated significantly over the period.
In 2004, imports from the USA were valued at 10 billion Australian dollars, rising slightly to 11 billion dollars by 2009. The value of exports was considerably higher, at around 30 billion dollars throughout the period.
In contrast, imports from Japan had a higher value than exports to that country. From a value of about 19 billion dollars in 2004, there was then an increase to reach a peak of 40 billion dollars in 2008, before falling to 31 billion dollars at the end of the period. Exports to Japan fluctuated slightly between 10 billion dollars in 2004 and 14 billion dollars in 2009.
The value of imports from China increased from 11 billion to 40 billion dollars over the period, overtaking the value of exports to that country. However, the export trade also saw an increase, rising to 31 billion dollars in 2009.
Bài 13: Overseas visitors to three different areas of a European country between 1987 and 2007
The diagram compares the number of visitors from abroad to different regions of one country in Europe over the period 1987 to 2007.
Overall, it is clear that the figures saw an increase during most of the period, despite some fluctuations. The coast, and the lakes and mountains were the areas most visited by overseas tourists.
In 1987, there were 40,000 visitors to the coast. Although the number fell slightly to around 38,000 in 1992, it then rose to a peak of 70,000 by 2004, before decreasing sharply to 55,000 in 2007.
The figures for overseas visitors to the lakes and mountains witnessed a similar trend. From just 10,000 visitors in 1987, the number rose dramatically to a peak of 75,000 in 2002, overtaking visitor numbers to the coast by the year 2000. The figures then declined steadily to finish at around 65,000 in 2007.
Series 3 overseas visitors numbered 20,000 in 1987 – double the number who went to the lakes and mountains. The figures then fluctuated, but after 1992 visits to the lakes and mountains were higher than Series 3. By 2007, however, visitor numbers for Series 3 had risen to a peak of 35,000.
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