Pie chart là dạng biểu đồ tròn dùng để so sánh hoặc phân tích mức độ tổng thể, thường gặp trong IELTS Writing Task 1.
Dưới đây là một số bài mẫu, các em có thể học thêm từ vựng và cách viết để nâng band writing và đạt TARGET IELTScủa mình.
Bài 1: The average household expenditures in Japan and Malaysia
The charts compare the average household spending in Japan and Malaysia in terms of five important categories in 2010.
Overall, it is clear that householders in both countries spent the largest proportion of their income on just three categories – housing, food and other goods and services. The percentage figures for spending on transport and healthcare in Japan were double those for Malaysia.
In Malaysian households, the highest category was housing, which represented 34% of the total expenditure. Whereas this was higher than in Japan, with just 21% spent on housing, Japanese householders spent the highest proportion on a range of other goods and services, at 29%. This was slightly more than in Malaysia. In terms of food, the figures for both countries were similar, at 27% and 24% for Malaysia and Japan respectively.
Expenditure on health care was the lowest category. In Japan, this accounted for 6% of the total, while 20% of household spending went on transport. These figures were exactly double(*) those shown for Malaysia.
Bài 2: The online shopping sales for retail sectors
The charts compare four retail sectors in Canada in terms of the proportion of their internet sales in two years, 2005 and 2010.
Overall, the proportion of online sales for each of the four sectors changed significantly from 2005 to 2010. While the figures for food and beverages and also video games increased, the figures for the other two sectors fell.
In 2005, the proportion of online sales of food and beverages was 22%, but this rose to 32% in 2010. The percentage for internet sales of video games also went up, by 5% from the 2005 figure of 18%.
In contrast, the percentages of the online sales of the other sectors decreased. The most dramatic fall was in the home furnishings retail sector. While this figure was 25% of the total online sales of these four sectors in 2005, it fell to just 15% in 2010. There was also a decrease in the electronics and appliances sector, which saw a fall from 35% in 2005 to 30% in 2010.
Bài 3: Electricity generation by source in New Zealand and Germany
The charts compare the units of electricity produced in New Zealand and Germany in 1980 and 2010 from 5 fuel sources.
Overall, more units of electricity were produced in 2010 than in 1980 in both countries. In 2010, most electricity was produced by nuclear power in Germany and by coal in New Zealand.
(In 1980, total electricity production was higher in New Zealand than in Germany, with 127 and 107 units respectively. By 2010, the total electricity generated rose to 200 units in New Zealand, but increased in Germany to 214 units.)
In 1980, coal was the main source of electricity in New Zealand. It produced 56 units, which was twice the figure for Germany. Natural gas and hydro each accounted for 30 units in New Zealand, with 11units for coal. In contrast, in Germany, the figures for natural gas, nuclear and hydro power were 28 units, 20 units and only 7 units respectively.
There were 2 main sources of electricity production in New Zealand in 2010, coal [150 units] and hydro [46 units]. Nuclear power was used to generate 155 units in Germany. Although the figure for natural gas fell to only 2 units, coal [28 units] and petroleum [27 units] remained significant.
Bài 4: Sources of energy
The charts compare, in percentage terms, five fuel sources used to produce energy in the USA in 1980 and 1990.
Overall, oil was the main resource used for energy production in both years. There was relatively little change in the proportions of the other fuel sources used in 1980 and 1990.
In 1980, 42% of energy produced in the USA came from oil, but this then fell to 33% in 1990. The figures for natural gas, in contrast, remained almost stable at 26% of total energy production in 1980 and 25% in 1990. There was, however, a significant increase in the proportion of coal used as an energy source. From a figure of 22% in 1980, it then overtook natural gas in 1990, with 27%.
While the figure for hydroelectric power remained constant at 5% of the total in both years, the percentage of nuclear power used to produce energy rose by 5% from the 1980 figure, to reach 10% in 1990.
Bài 5: The number of research students in Australian universities
The table compares the number of students conducting research in Australian universities in 2001 and 2010. The pie charts illustrate the proportion of national and international male and female research students in the same years.
Overall, there was a strong growth in the number of students carrying out research. A significantly higher percentage of local students did research compared with international students.
In 2001, almost 39,000 students conducted research in Australian universities, while only about 5,000 of these were international students. In 2010, the number rose to over 54,000 research students. This included a notable increase in international students, to a figure of approximately 14,600.
The charts show that 87% of all research students in 2001 were local, however this figure fell to 73% in 2010. The percentage of international research students doubled, reaching 27% of the total in 2010. While the proportion of male and female local research students was equal in 2001, by 2010 there was a higher percentage of males to females, at 39% and 35% respectively. In 2001, the figures for international research students stood at 9% males and 4% females. However, the proportion of female international research students saw a striking increase to 15% in 2010, compared with a modest rise to 12% for males.
Bài 6: The methods used by international students when booking the online English courses in three different countrie
The charts illustrate the percentage of international students in Australia, the USA and Canada who used various methods to book online English courses in 2009 and 2010.
Overall, the proportion of students in all 3 countries booking through the Internet increased from 2009 to 2010. The percentage of students who pre-booked their courses through agents increased in Canada and the USA, but decreased in Australia.
In 2009, 24% of students booked these courses in Australia via the Internet, compared with 25% and 27% in the USA and Canada, respectively. These figures increased in 2010, by just 3% in the USA and Canada, in contrast to a dramatic rise in Australia to 39%. There was a growth in the proportion of students who pre-booked courses with agents in Canada, to reach 35% in 2010. The percentage also went up in the USA, by 3% to reach 26% in 2010, whereas the figure for Australia fell from 26% to 17%.
The proportion for ‘booking on arrival’ was 30% in Australia and Canada in 2009. This increased to 35% in Australia, but declined by half in Canada in 2010. The figure for the USA remained stable at 24%. ‘Other’ methods accounted for 28%, 20% and 7% in the USA, Australia and Canada respectively in 2009, rising to20% in Canada in 2010, but falling to 22% in the USA and 13% in Australia.
Bài 7: Visiting public library in Britain
The pie charts compare the percentages of visitors to public libraries in Britain in 1991 and 2000 in terms of the purposes of their visits.
Overall, in both years the main reason for visiting a library was to borrow or return books. It is also clear that the proportion of people who used a public library to obtain information in 2000 was double the figure for 1991.
In 1991, 65% of visitors to public libraries in Britain went there in order to borrow or return books. However, in 2000 this figure fell to 55%, although a new category of borrowing or returning videos appears in the chart for 2000, when 18% of visitors used a library for this purpose.
10% of library users in 1991 visited in order to obtain information, and this percentage doubled in 2000. By contrast, the percentage of people using a public library to study or to read newspapers and magazines saw a significant decrease. While in 1991, 10% of people gave study as their main reason for visiting a library and 15% said that they went to newspapers and magazines, both these proportions fell in 2000, to just 2% and 5% respectively.
Bài 8: People’s total spending in a particular European country
The pie charts illustrate the percentage of people’s total expenditure on six categories of goods and services in a European country in 1958 and 2008.
Overall, the proportion of total spending on food was much higher in 1958 than in 2008. In contrast, people spent a significantly higher percentage on housing, travel and transport, and luxury goods in 2008 compared with fifty years earlier.
In 1958, the highest proportion of people’s spending was on food, which accounted for 32% of their total income. However, this fell to only 12% in 2008. There was also a decrease in expenditure on entertainment, from 13% in 1958 to 6% in 2008. Spending on clothing also decreased in the years shown, though only slightly, from 18% to 16%.
In contrast, the proportion of spending saw an increase in three categories. Housing accounted for the highest percentage of total spending in 2008, at 32% in 2008 compared with 22% in 1958. While people spent only 8% on travel and transport in 1958, this more than doubled to 17% in 2008. Finally, there was also a notable rise in people’s expenditure on luxury goods, from 7% in 2008 to 17% fifty years later.
Bài 9: Energy produced by different sources in one country in 1985 and 2003
The pie charts compare the percentage of energy generated from five different sources in 1985 and 2003 in one country.
Overall, it is clear that in both years oil accounted for the highest proportion of energy produced. The figures for energy generated from both coal and natural gas were higher in 2003 than in 1985.
In 1985, slightly more than half the total energy produced came from oil. However, in 2003 this fell to only 39%. There was also a decrease in the percentage of energy generated from nuclear power, from 22% in 1985 to 17% in 2003, when it became a less important source than natural gas.
While the proportion of energy from hydroelectricity remained stable at 4%, the percentage of energy produced from coal rose from 8% of the total in 1985 to 13% in 2003. The percentage of total energy from natural gas also witnessed a rise, from 13% in 1985 to 23% in 2003.
Bài 10: Where coffee is produced, consumed and where its profit goes
The first pie chart illustrates the proportion of coffee production in the world according to region, while the second chart compares different regions of the world in terms of total coffee consumption. The final chart compares the percentages of the profits from coffee distributed among four sectors.
Overall, although South America produced the highest percentage of coffee, consumption was highest in Europe. Shippers gained the highest proportion of profits.
South America produced 44% of all the coffee in the world, while production in Africa, Asia and Central America accounted for similar proportions, at 19%, 18% and 17% respectively. Production in Oceania represented only 2% of the total. In contrast, in terms of coffee consumption, over half of all coffee consumed (55%) was in Europe, ahead of North America with 11% and Japan with 7%. Consumption in other regions accounted for 27% of the total.
Shippers made 55% of all profits from coffee, more than twice the proportion gained by sellers with 25%. Explorers and producers each made 10% of total profits.
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