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Bài 1: How bricks are produced
The flow chart shows how bricks are produced for, and delivered to the building industry. Overall, there are 7 stages in the whole brick producing process, beginning with clay excavation and ending with the delivery of the bricks to the customers.
Firstly, clay is dug up by using a big digger. To get rid of the oversized pieces, clay is placed on a metal grid and small pieces drop onto a large roller. At the next stage, sand and water are added to the clay. After the bricks are shaped by using a wire cutter or a mould, they are moved to a drying oven for 24 to 48 hours.
Those bricks are then fired in a special kiln at a moderate temperature (200c - 980c) at the fourth step. Afterwards, they continue to be heated for the second time at a higher temperature (870c - 1300c) in another kiln. Before being packaged at the sixth stage, the bricks are treated in a cooling chamber for 48 to 72 hours. The entire brick producing process concludes after the bricks are delivered to customers.
Bài 2: Water cycle
The chart illustrates the circulation of water in nature.
Overall, it is clear that there are three main stages in this process, beginning with the evaporation of water and the formation of a cloud.. The next step shows the water‘s journey after falling to the ground and the process ends with salt water intrusion.
At the first step of the process, as a result of the sun ‘s heat, water evaporates into the air. It is estimated that 80% of total water vapour is taken from the ocean. Following this, a cloud is formed by the condensation of water vapour
In the next stage, the heavy clouds cause rain or snow. Water from the precipitation partly pours into the lakes or can be absorbed into the ground. The surface runoff which is made from rainwater creates the groundwater and then flows back to the ocean without reaching the impervious layer. The final stage of the process is the salt water intrusion where water from the ocean moves to the freshwater aquifers.
Bài 3: Life cycle of a frog
The diagram illustrates the different stages of development of a frog during its life cycle. There are seven stages shown in the process, beginning with mating and ending with the development of an adult frog.
To begin with, a male and female adult frog mate. The female frog then lays a large number of eggs in the water, shown as frogspawn. In the third stage, the frogspawn hatches and small tadpoles emerge. Over a period of time, these small tadpoles grow bigger and their limbs begin to form.
By the fifth stage, the tadpoles start to grow into young frogs. Although they still live in the water, their tails are shorter than before and their limbs develop significantly. When this young frog becomes mature, it has no tail and its four limbs are fully developed. It is then ready to leave the water and it continues to grow in size. In the final stage, the frog is fully adult and is ready to mate. The cycle will then continue again.
Bài 4: Solar panels
The picture illustrates the process of producing electricity in a home using solar panels.
It is clear that there are five distinct stages in this process, beginning with the generation of energy from sunlight. The final two steps show how domestic electricity is connected to the external power supply.
At the first stage in the process, solar panels on the roof of a normal house take energy from the sun and convert it into DC current. Next, this current is passed to an inverter, which changes it to AC current and regulates the supply of electricity. At stage three, electricity is supplied to the home from an electrical panel.
At the fourth step shown on the diagram, a utility meter in the home is responsible for sending any extra electrical power outside the house into the grid. Finally, if the solar panels do not provide enough energy for the household, electricity will flow from the utility grid into the home through the meter.
Bài 5: Life cycle of the honey bee
The diagram illustrates the various stages in the life of a honey bee.
The complete life cycle lasts between 34 and 36 days. It is also noticeable that there are five main stages in the development of the honey bee, from egg to mature adult insect.
The life cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.
During the third stage of the life cycle, the nymph grows in size and sheds its skin three times. This moulting first takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days later, and again another 9 days later. After a total of 30 to 31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey bee emerges from its final moulting stage, and in the space of only 4 days it reaches full maturity.
Bài 6: Glass recycling
The diagram illustrates the various stages in the recycling of waste glass bottles.
There are three main stages shown in the diagram, beginning with the collection of the used glass bottles and ending with the delivery of products in new bottles to retail outlets such as supermarkets.
In the first stage, waste bottles are deposited at collection points, where they are loaded onto trucks for delivery to a glass recycling facility.
Stage 2 begins with the process of cleaning the bottles with high pressure water and they are then separated into clear, green and brown glass. This is then broken into pieces in the glass factory and passed through a furnace, where they are burned at a temperature of 600 to 800 degrees Celsius. This recycled glass is now in liquid form, and it is joined with new liquid glass ready for moulding into a bottle shape.
In the final stage, the new bottles are used for different products, ready for sale in supermarkets or shops.
Bài 7: Process of waste treatment
The diagram illustrates the stages involved intwo different methods of dealing with plastic waste. These stages are dumping in landfill sites or recycling.
Overall, both processes are concerned with the consumption and use of plastic products. However, recycling is a relatively complex process compared with the disposal of plastic items in landfill.
Plastic which is not destined for recycling is shown as passing through four phases. Consumers purchase the plastic goods in a shop and they then use those goods before they throw them away in waste bins. However, some plastic is also discarded as litter. All this unwanted plastic eventually ends up in landfill sites.
Alternatively, plastic items can be reused, and this involves a cycle of seven stages. Once more, the shop sells plastic products to customers, who then use them. However, this time they take the used plastic items to a recycling collecting point, and from there the plastic goes to a warehouse for sorting. Next, trucks transport the sorted plastic goods to an industrial processing plants, where the plastic is converted into usable forms. The final product then returns to retail outlets for sale and the cycle begins again.
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