Return to site

Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Cách Làm dạng bài Short – Answer trong IELTS Reading, kèm bài tập chọn lọc!

· Reading,IELTS Practice Test

Ngoài các thông thạo các kĩ năng Reading như Identifying information, Matching/HeadingFlow Chart Completion. Để tăng tốc độ làm bài Reading lên đáng kể chúng ta cần phải nhuần nhuyễn các dạng câu hỏi Short Answer.

Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading

Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading

Khó khăn thường gặp khi trả lời dạng Short Answer Question

    • Bạn phải tự mình đưa ra câu trả lời, chứ không chỉ chọn 1 chữ cái hoặc một cụm từ như trong câu hỏi nhiều lựa chọn (multiple choice questions)
    • Bạn sẽ khó khăn hơn trong việc dựa vào ngữ pháp và ngữ cảnh của câu để đoán được loại từ cần điền giống như dạng bài tập hoàn thành câu (sentence completion).
    • Bạn biết vị trí câu trả lời nhưng không biết phải điền đáp án thế nào cho đúng và phù hợp với số lượng từ đề bài yêu cầu, thường thì vấn đề này sẽ gặp nhiều khi xuất hiện từ các bạn cho là khó và không biết nghĩa. 
    • Bài đọc thường không dùng lại những từ được ghi trong câu hỏi mà dùng cách nói khác đi (paraphrasing) hoặc từ đồng nghĩa (synonyms), vì vậy làm cho thí sinh khó theo dõi mạch hội thoại.
    • Synonyms and paraphrasing (Từ đồng nghĩa và kĩ năng viết lại câu) là vấn đề lớn nhất của thí sinh. Các bạn có xu hướng tìm kiếm key words trong bài đọc giống y hệt từ trong câu hỏi. Điều này sẽ mất thời gian và khiến bạn phân tâm khi làm bài.
    • Hay bỏ qua “Word limit” – giới hạn số lượng từ cần điền. Thừa từ so với yêu cầu đề bài sẽ không mang lại cho bạn một tí điểm nào cả.

    Các bước làm dạng Short Answer trong IELTS READING

    1. Đọc siêu kĩ câu hỏi, thường thường làm một lần 2-3 câu
    2. Nắm vững quy luật của dạng Short Answer là số thứ tự câu hỏi, sẽ tương ứng với sự xuất hiện của câu trả lời câu hỏi đó trong đoạn Passage
    3. Highlight keywords để có thể tìm ra được đoạn nào trong đoạn passage là chứa đáp án của câu hỏi 
    4. Sau khi đã khoanh vùng đáp án, bạn sẽ đọc lại câu hỏi một lần nữa để tìm ra đáp án 
    5. Sau khi tìm ra đáp án check xem thử có phù hợp với số từ đề cho không, có dư chữ, thiếu dấu hay phù hợp với ngữ pháp hay cách dùng từ hay không
    6. Đọc lại xem đáp án có hài hòa về nghĩa so với câu trả lời đề cho không

    Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading

    Bài 1:

    Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading
    Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading
    Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading
    Hướng dẫn từ A đến Z Phương pháp làm dạng bài Short – Answer Question trong IELTS Reading

    Bài 2:

    READING PASSAGE 2

    The Triune1 Brain

    The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities. The reptilian cortex also houses the “startle centre”, a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defence. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

    Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.

    Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex – which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as thelaws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

    The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean groundbreaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.

    Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

    Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy2, “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others.

    One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

    __________________________________________
    1 Triune = three-in-one
    2 Lobotomy = surgical cutting of brain nerves

    Questions 14–22
    Classify the following as typical of
    A. the reptilian cortex
    B. the limbic cortex
    C. the neocortex

    Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 14–22 on your answer sheet.

    14. giving up short-term happiness for future gains
    15. maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life
    16. experiencing the pain of losing another
    17. forming communities and social groups
    18. making a decision and carrying it out
    19. guarding areas of land
    20. developing explanations for things
    21. looking after one’s young
    22. responding quickly to sudden movement and noise

    Questions 23–26
    Complete the sentences below.
    Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
    Write your answers in boxes 23–26 on your answer sheet.

    23. A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as ………………….
    24. ………………… in humans is associated with limbic disruption.
    25. An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his ………………….
    26. After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s ………………… and higher-order thinking.

    Hướng dẫn

    Bước 1: Đọc kĩ câu hỏi trước khi đọc bài đọc, xác định giới hạn từ & Xác định keywords - Chú ý là các em nên phân tích và highlight keywords của trọn bộ câu hỏi chứ không nên tách riêng lẻ từng phần câu hỏi nhé!

    Questions 14–22
    Classify the following as typical of
    A. the reptilian cortex
    B. the limbic cortex
    C. the neocortex

    14. giving up short-term happiness for future gains
    15. maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life
    16. experiencing the pain of losing another
    17. forming communities and social groups
    18. making a decision and carrying it out
    19. guarding areas of land
    20. developing explanations for things
    21. looking after one’s young
    22. responding quickly to sudden movement and noise

    Lưu ý: thực chất là vì dạng câu hỏi này câu trả lời thường rất ngắn nên không nhất thiết các em phải highlight keywords miễn các em nhớ ý chính để skim và khoanh vùng được đoạn chứa đáp án trong đoạn văn để các em đọc kĩ lại là ok

    Dạng này thật sự là một trong những dạng khá khó trong IELTS READING, lí do là có khả năng thông tin sẽ rải hết cả bài nên các em cần phải rất tỉnh táo khi làm những dạng tương tự như này nhé!

    Questions 23–26
    Complete the sentences below.
    Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
    Write your answers in boxes 23–26 on your answer sheet.

    23. A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as ………………….
    24. ………………… in humans is associated with limbic disruption.
    25. An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his ………………….
    26. After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s ………………… and higher-order thinking.

    Dạng này thực ra khá dễ nên các em chỉ cần tìm ra đoạn chưá đáp án, đọc kĩ lại đáp án rồi điền từ vào nhớ chú ý NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS thì tức là chỉ điền từ 2 words trở xuống đừng dại mà điền 3 words nhé!

    Bước 4+5+6: Đọc bài reading từ trên xuống dưới, vừa đọc vừa dò xem đoạn văn đó sẽ có chứa đáp án của câu nào & Gạch chân những ý quan trọng. Trong lúc đọc, nếu nghi ngờ đoạn văn đó có chứa đáp án của câu nào thì quay lại bảng câu hỏi đọc lại câu hỏi để khoanh vùng được câu trả lời. Phải Khoanh vùng được đáp án câu trả lời. Sau khi đã khoanh vùng được đáp án nằm ở đoạn nào, đọc SIÊU SIÊU KĨ đoạn đó để tìm ra đáp án

    Questions 14–22

    Lưu ý tiếp theo: với dạng này câu hỏi và thông tin trả lời cho câu hỏi không đi theo thứ tự câu hỏi vì vậy nên khi các em làm dạng câu hoỉ này, bắt buộc các em phải làm CẢ CHÙM - TẤT CẢ CÂU HỎI THUỘC DẠNG NÀY VỚI NHAU!

    14. giving up short-term happiness for future gains
    15. maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life A. the reptilian cortex
    16. experiencing the pain of losing another
    17. forming communities and social groups
    18. making a decision and carrying it out
    19. guarding areas of land A. the reptilian cortex
    20. developing explanations for things
    21. looking after one’s young
    22. responding quickly to sudden movement and noise A. the reptilian cortex

    The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities. The reptilian cortex also houses the “startle centre”, a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defence. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

    Lưu ý: vì câu hỏi và câu trả lời sẽ không đi theo thứ tự với nhau, các em sẽ đọc lần lượt từng Option A, B & C đề cho trong bài là

    A. the reptilian cortex
    B. the limbic cortex
    C. the neocortex

    Từ đó sẽ trả lời được câu nào phù hợp với A the reptilian cortex, rồi mới đọc tiếp để chọn cho B và C

    14. giving up short-term happiness for future gains C. the neocortex
    15. maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life A. the reptilian cortex
    16. experiencing the pain of losing another B. the limbic cortex
    17. forming communities and social groups B. the limbic cortex
    18. making a decision and carrying it out C. the neocortex
    19. guarding areas of land A. the reptilian cortex
    20. developing explanations for things C. the neocortex
    21. looking after one’s young B. the limbic cortex
    22. responding quickly to sudden movement and noise A. the reptilian cortex

    Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young.Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.

    Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortexwhich engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as thelaws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

    Để giải thích lí do vì sao IELTS TUTOR ra được đáp án như trên các em nhớ check kĩ những câu in đậm mà IELTS TUTOR đã in đậm nhé!

    Trong khi đọc tiếp để giải quyết cho xong Questions 14–22 các em cũng nên cảnh giác đọc lại Questions 23–26 để nhỡ có câu nào là đáp án thì mình có thể điền luôn vào

    23. A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as brain dead……………….

    Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

    Các em phải nhận ra: is understood to be = is known as

    24. ……sociopathic behaviour…………… in humans is associated with limbic disruption.
     

    Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy2, “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others.

    Các em phải nhận ra: is closely related to = is associated with

    25. An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his …neocortex……………….
    26. After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s …… animal propensities…………… and higher-order thinking.

    One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

    Các em phải nhận ra: a metal rod = industrial accident

    Lưu ý: Việc điền được từ vào đoạn văn hay không phụ thuộc rất lớn khả năng nhận biết từ đồng nghĩa và khả năng paraphrase của các em!

    Bài tập 1: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 2: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 3: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 4: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 5: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 6: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 7: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 8: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 9: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 10: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 11: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 12: SHORT ANSWER

    Read the following text about pedestrian zones in cities.

    A large number of European towns and cities have made part of their centres car-free since the early 1960s. These are often accompanied by car parks on the edge of the pedestrianised zone, and, in the larger cases, park and ride schemes. Central Copenhagen is one of the largest and oldest examples: the auto-free zone is centred on Strøget, a pedestrian shopping street, which is in fact not a single street but a series of interconnected avenues which create a very large auto-free zone, although it is crossed in places by streets with vehicular traffic. Most of these zones allow delivery trucks to service the businesses located there during the early morning, and street-cleaning vehicles will usually go through these streets after most shops have closed for the night.

    In North America, where a more commonly used term is pedestrian mall, such areas are still in their infancy. Few cities have pedestrian zones, but some have pedestrianised single streets. Many pedestrian streets are surfaced with cobblestones, or pavement bricks, which discourage any kind of wheeled traffic, including wheelchairs. They are rarely completely free of motor vehicles.

    Fill the gaps below with NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS from the text.

    1. In some cases, people are encouraged to park ________ of the town or city centre.
    2. The only vehicles permitted in most pedestrian zones are those used for ________ or ________ cleaning.
    3. Certain types of road surface can be used to ________ traffic.

    Bài tập 13: SHORT ANSWER

    Read the following passage about nocturnal animals.

    Nocturnality is an animal behaviour characterised by activity during the night and sleep during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal", versus its opposite “diurnal”.

    Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing and smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Such traits can help animals such as the Helicoverpa zea moth to avoid predators. Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination. Others, such as bushbabies and some bats, can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures, including most owls, have large eyes in comparison with their body size to compensate for the lower light levels at night.

    Being active at night is a form of niche differentiation, where a species' niche is partitioned not by the amount of resources but by time (i.e. temporal division of the ecological niche). For example, hawks and owls can hunt the same field or meadow for the same rodents without conflict because hawks are diurnal and owls are nocturnal.

    Fill the gaps in the summary using words from the list below it.

    Nocturnal animals sleep during the daytime, whereas ______ animals are awake during the day and they ______ at night. Animals that are active at night tend to have ______ hearing and smell, and they may have ______ eyesight. Nocturnality allows animals to hunt for prey without having to ______ with predators that are active during daylight hours.

    most, sensitive, asleep, conflict, diurnal, compete, exceptional, sleep

    Bài tập 14: SHORT ANSWER

    Bài tập 15: SHORT ANSWER

    Nhiều học sinh đến với IELTS TUTOR với những băn khoăn vì sao đã tu luyện nhiều năm mà kết quả vẫn không đạt như mong muốn. Để giải đáp thắc mắc nhiều bạn chúng tôi đã tổng hợp và tìm ra nhiều phương pháp cấp tốchiệu quả như IELTS Reading Chuyên Đề Multiple Choice: Bài Tập IELTS Siêu Chọn Lọc và Đáp Án, cũng như Chuyên Đề IELTS READING 7.0: Tổng Hợp Bài Tập Chuyên Dạng YES - NO - NOT GIVEN [Mức Độ Nâng Cao]

    Còn điều gì các bạn còn thắc mắc trong cách ôn tập và kỳ thi IELTS, hãy comment ngay phía dưới để IELTS TUTOR giải đáp nhé!

    Share bài Blog lại để khi cần thì có ngay để học luôn nhé

    All Posts
    ×

    Almost done…

    We just sent you an email. Please click the link in the email to confirm your subscription!

    OK