Câu tường thuật là gì? Cách sử dụng cũng như những lưu ý khi sử dụng câu tường thuật là những điều nên biết khi học tiếng anh. Dù trong giáo dục phổ thông hay các kì thi quốc tế, Câu tường thuật - Reported Speech là điểm ngữ pháp quan trọng. Toàn bộ sẽ được IELTS TUTOR giải thích dưới bài viết này.
I. Câu tường thuật là gì?
Câu tường thuật là câu thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp của người khác.
Ex: She said ,” The exam is difficult”. (Cô ấy nói, "Bài thi thật khó.")
Ex: Lan said,”I want to go home” -> Lan said she wanted to go home (indirect speech) (Lan nói cô ấy muốn về nhà)
II. Các loại câu tường thuật
1. Dạng câu kể
Subject + say(s) / said + (that) + Subject + Verb
Các dạng câu theo thì (tense), và modal verb
2. Dạng câu hỏi
Câu hỏi WH:
S + asked (+O)/ wanted to know/ wondered + Wh-words + S + V.
Câu hỏi Yes/ No:
S + asked/ wanted to know/ wondered + if/ whether + S + V
3. Dạng mệnh lệnh
Khẳng định (Positive):
S + told + O + to-infinitive.
Example: She said, “Sit down." - She asked me to sit down.
Phủ định (Negative):
S + told + O + not to-infinitive.
Example: She said, "don't be lazy" - She asked me not to be lazy
Câu yêu cầu - Request statement:
Câu ra lệnh - Order statement:
4. Dạng đề nghị
Why don’t you / Why not / How about
→ S + suggested + ( someone ) + V_ing
“Why don’t you send her some flowers?” he said.
→ He suggested me sending her some flowers.
“Why not forward her the message?” I said to him.
→ I suggested him forwarding her the message.
Let’s / Let’s not
→ S + suggested (not) + V_ing
“Let’s meet outside the cinema,” he said.
→ He suggested meeting outside the cinema.
“Let’s not talk about that problem again,” he said.
→ He suggested not talking about that problem again.
Shall we/ It’s a good idea
→ S + suggested + V_ing.
“It’s a good idea to send her some flowers,” he said.
→ He suggested sending her some flowers.
5. Dạng Ving
Reporting verb + (someone) + preposition + V_ing …
Các động từ thường gặp:
Thank someone for
Warn someone against
Apologize (to sb) for
Accuse someone of
Congratulate someone on
Prevent someone from
Look forward to
“I’m happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!” Jim said to Mary.
→ Jim congratulated Mary on winning the game.
Peter said, “I want to be a famous singer worldwide.”
→ Peter dream of being a famous singer worldwide.
Reporting + Ving ...
Các động từ thường gặp: deny, admit, suggest, regret, appreciate
Peter said, “I didn’t steal the painting. It’s not me”.
→ Peter denied stealing the painting.
6. Dạng To V
Reporting verbs + Object + to_V
Các động từ thường gặp: ask, advice, command, expect, instruct, invite, order, persuade, recommend, encourage, remind, tell, urge, warn, want
“Don’t forget to lock the door,” I said to my sister.
→ I remind my sister to lock the door.
Reporting verbs + to_V…
Các động từ thường gặp: agree, demand, guarantee, hope, promise, swear, threaten, consent, decide.
I’ll give you my book if you need it,” my friend said to me.
→ My friend offered to give me his book if I needed it.
7. Câu điều kiện
Nếu trong lời nói trực tiếp có câu điều kiện, thì chỉ có câu điều loại I là có sự thay đổi về THÌ, hai loại câu điều kiện còn lại thì vẫn giữ nguyên hình thức động từ.
“If I have a time, I will visit her,” he said.
→ He said that if he had time, he would visit her
“If I were in New York now, I would visit her,” he said.
→ He said that if he were in New York then, he would visit her.
“If I had met her, I would have told her the truth,” he said.
→ He said that if he had met her, he would have told her the truth.
8. Câu cảm thán
What + a + noun! /how + adj
–> said that + clause
–> gave an exclamation of delight (vui mừng, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)
“How beautiful the picture is”, he said.
–> He said that the picture was beautiful
–> He gave an exclamation of delight.
“What a dirty kitchen!” she said.
–> She said that the kitchen was dirty.
–> She gave an exclamation of disgust.
“How wonderful”, he said.
–> He said that it was wonderful.
–> He gave an exclamation of surprise.
9. Câu cảm ơn
“Thank”–> subject + thanked
“Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?”, he said. “thank you, I’d love to” she said --> He invited her to have dinner with him that night. She thanked him and said she would love to.
III. Các bước để chuyển đổi câu
Bước 1: Chọn từ tường thuật
2 từ tường thuật thông dụng nhất là say/tell hoặc said/told (nói). Ngoài ra, các từ tường thuật cũng hay được sử dụng khác như:
Ask (asked): yêu cầu
Deny (denied): từ chối
Suggest (suggested): gợi ý
Advise (advised): khuyên nhủ
Promise (promised): hy vọng
Bước 2: Lùi thì động từ
Xác định động từ trong câu trực tiếp ở thì động từ nào thì phải lùi 1 thì ở trong câu gián tiếp
Simple present (Vs/es) --- Simple Past (V2/ed)
Simple Past (V2/ed) --- Past perfect (had + V3/ed)
Simple future (will/ shall +Vo) --- Future in the past (would/ should + Vo)
Present continuous (am/is/are + V-ing) --- Past Continuous (was/ were +Ving)
Past Continuous (was/ were +Ving) --- Past perfect continuous/ Past continuous
Future Continuous (will + be + Ving) --- Future continuous in the past (would + be + Ving)
Presen perfect (have/ has + V3/ed) --- Past perfect (had +V3/ed)
Past perfect (had +V3/ed) --- giữ nguyên
Future perfect (will + have + V3/ed) --- Future perfect in the past (would + have + V3/ed)
can --- could
must --- had to
Bước 3: Đổi các đại từ và tính từ sở hữu
(Coi bảng chuyển đổi bên dưới)
Bước 4: Đổi từ chỉ nơi chốn, thời gian
(Coi bảng chuyển đổi bên dưới)
IV. Những từ cần đổi khi chuyển sang câu tường thuật
Mệnh đề chỉ thời gian:
Now - then/ at that time
Today - yesterday/ that day/ Monday/ the 2nd of October
Yesterday - the day before yesterday/ the day before/ Sunday/ the 1st of August
Last night - the night before, Sunday night
Last week - the week before/ the previous week
Tomorrow: today/ the next day/ the following day/ Tuesday
Next year - the following year/ 2022/ this year
... days ago - ... days before ( ago - before )
Mệnh đề chỉ không gian:
Here - There
Overhere - Overthere
Mệnh đề chỉ định:
This - The/ That
These - The/ Those
will - would
can - could
shall - should
must/ have to - must/ had to
may - might
I - he/ she
You - I/ We/ They
We - We/ They
Me - Him/ Her
You - Me/ Us/ Them
Us - Us/ Them
My - His/ Her
Your - My/ Our/ Their
Our - Our/ Their
Mine - His/ Hers
Yours - Mine/ Ours/ Theirs
Ours - Ours/ Theirs
V. Các trường hợp đặc biệt
Các trường hợp sau đây sẽ không thay đổi thì của động từ:
VI. Các cấu trúc câu gián tiếp nâng cao thường gặp
S+ warned+ sb+ to V/ not to V + O hoặc S + Warned sb against Ving: cảnh báo ai làm( không làm ) gì
Ex: “Don’t play ball near the restricted area.” I said to the boy --> I warned the boy not to play ball near the restricted area / against playing ball near the restricted area
S+ should/had better/ought to + V
If I were you, I would + V...
Why don't you + V...
--> S + advised + sb + to Vo/ not to Vo: khuyên ai đó nên (không nên) làm gì
Ex: " You should drink more water " The doctor said to her --> The doctor advised her to drink more water
" If I were you, I wouldnt buy that book " my friend said --> My friend advised me not to buy that book
S+ will/won't + V -->S + promised + sb + to + V / not to V: hứa làm gì
Ex: " I will never do this again " He said to her --> he promised her not to do that again
S+ invited sb + to V/ to + danh từ/ danh từ (địa điểm) : mời ai đó làm gì hoặc đến đâu
Ex: Ann said: “Come to my place whenever you are free.” --> Ann invited me to come to her place whenever I was free.
S+ threatened (sb) + to V/ not to V : đe doạ (ai) làm gì
Ex: He said " I will kill you if you don't do that "--> He threatened to kill me if I didn't do that
Shall we+ V....
How/What about+ V ing ...
Why dont we + V...
-->S+ suggested + Ving = S+ suggested+ that+ S+ should/ shouldn't + V đề nghị làm gì hoặc điều gì nên đc làm
Ex: " Why don’t we go out for a walk?” said the boy --> The boy suggested going out for a walk
How + adj + S + to be !
What + a/ an+ adj + DT !
-->S + exclaimed + that + S+ V (lùi thì) + O
Ex: He said, “What a lovely garden they have!" --> He exclaimed that they had a lovely garden.
How dreadful! (Đáng sợ quá!) --> He exclaimed that it was dreadful.
S+ wished + sb+ (a/a) + adj + DT: chúc ai đó có được điều gì
Ex: " Have a happy birthday" she said --> she wished me a happy birthday
S+ congratulated+ sb + a/an+ adj+ DTOr S+ congratulated+ sb+ on+ Ving : chúc mừng ai vì điều gì
Ex: “I’m happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!”, Jim said to Mary --> Jim congratulated Mary on winning the game
S + welcomed + sb/ st + to + địa điểm: chào đón ai đến với ..
.Ex: " Welcome to my house , my dear " she said to her friend --> She welcomed her friend to her house
S+ accused + sb+ of (not)+ Ving
Ex: " You stole my bike ". He said --> He accused me of stealing / having stolen his bike
S + agreed + to V: đồng ý làm gì
Ex: Ann: " Would you wait half an hour.? "Tom: " All right" --> Tom agreed to wait.
S+ admitted + Ving: thừa nhận đã làm gì
Ex: “I’ve made the wall dirty” said one student --> One student admitted making the wall dirty.
S+ denied + Ving: phủ nhận đã làm gì
Ex: Peter said: “I didn’t steal the painting.” --> Peter denied stealing the painting.
S+ refused + to V : từ chối làm gì
Ex: Ann: "Would you lend me another £50? "Tom: " No, I won’t lend you any more money" --> Tom refused to lend her any more money.
S+ insisted + on + Ving: khăng khăng, nài nỉ làm gì
Ex: Tom said “ Let me pay for myself --> Tom insisted on paying.
S + apologized + to+ sb + for (not) + Ving: xin lỗi ai vì làm ( không làm ) gì
Ex: Ann said to her boss: “I’m sorry I’m late” --> Ann apologized to her boss for being late.
S+ dreamed of+ Ving: luôn mơ về điều gì
Ex: Daisy said: “I want to be a famous singer in the world.” --> Daisy dreamed of being a famous singer in the world.
S+ encouraged + sb + to V
Ex: “Try again” she said --> She encouraged me to try again.
S + prevented+ sb/st+ from+ Ving: ngăn ai làm gì ,cái gì xảy ra
Ex: " My mother said : " I cant let you use the phone --> my mother prevented me from using the phone
S+ reproached + sb + for + Ving
Ex: " You should have finished the report by now” John told his secretary --> John reproached his secretary for not having finished the report
S + blamed sb + For + Ving : đổ lỗi ai làm gì
Ex: " It was your fault. You didnt tell the truth " She said --> She blamed me for not telling the truth
S+ suspected sb of Ving : nghi ngờ ai làm gì
Ex: " I think He stole that car " My friend said --> My friend suspected him of stealing that car
Shall I help you...Can I ...-> S+ offered To + V: gợi ý làm gì cho ai
Ex: " Can I carry the bag for you " He said --> He offered to carry the bag for me
S + regretted + Ving : hối tiếc đã làm gì
Ex: " I wish I had visited her" said He --> He regretted not having visited/ visiting her
S+ complained about + S: phàn nàn điều gì
Ex: " You are always getting up late " My mother said--> My mother complained about my getting up late
S + reminded sb + to V : nhắc nhở ai làm gì
Ex: “Don’t forget to phone me this afternoon,” he said --> He reminded me to phone him that afternoon
S+ Criticized sb + For + Ving : phê bình ai việc gì
Ex: " You shoudnt have made that mistake " the boss said to me: bạn lẽ ra không nên gây ra lỗi đó ---> The boss criticized me for having made that mistake
S + Thanked sb for st : cảm ơn ai vì điều gì
Ex : ' Thank you very for your help " She said to him --> She thanked him for his help
S+ Called sb something : gọi ai đó là gì
Ex: “Liar!” => He called me a liar.
31. CÁC DẠNG CÂU GHÉP ( có 2 câu nói trong 1 dấu ngoặc kép)
*Đối với các trường hợp phải dùng liên từ để nối chúng lại; các liên từ thường dùng là :Nếu 2 câu là nguyên nhân, kết quả (quan hệ nhân quả) của nhau thì dùng: Because/ So….
“Don’t tell me to do that. I don’t like it “--> He asked me not to tell him to do that because he did not like it.
Nếu 2 câu đó là câu nói liên tiếp nhau (quan hệ nối tiếp) thì dùng: And, added that : Và thêm vào rằng
Ex: “ I miss my mother. I will visit her tomorrow.”--> She said that she missed her mother and added that she would visit her the next day.
Nếu 2 câu khác dạng nhau (không cùng là câu phát biểu, câu mệnh lệnh hay câu nghi vấn,...) thì câu đầu vẫn làm bình thường sau đó thêm and và động từ tường thuật riêng của câu sau.
Ex: “This is my book. Don’t take it away.”--> She said that was her book and told me not to take it away.
“Tomorrow is my birthday. Do you remember that?”--> She said that the next day was her birthday and asked me if I remembered that.
Ps: Còn điều gì các em còn thắc mắc trong IELTS nữa không, có thể comment phía dưới để IELTS TUTOR giải đáp nhé!
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