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1. BÀI TẬP 1

2. BÀI TẬP 2

3. BÀI 3:

A utopia is a community or society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities. The word was coined in Greek by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book Utopia, describing a fictional island society in the Atlantic Ocean. Chronologically, the first recorded utopian proposal is Plato's Republic. It proposes a categorization of citizens into a rigid class structure of "golden," "silver," "bronze" and "iron" socioeconomic classes. In the early 19th century, several “utopian socialist” ideas arose, in response to the belief that social disruption was created by the development of commercialism and capitalism. These ideas shared certain characteristics: an egalitarian distribution of goods, frequently with the total abolition of money, and citizens only doing work which they enjoy and which is for the common good, leaving them with ample time for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. One classic example of such a utopia was Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward. Another socialist utopia is William Morris' News from Nowhere, written partially in response to the top-down (bureaucratic) nature of Bellamy's utopia, which Morris criticized. However, as the socialist movement developed it moved away from utopianism; Karl Marx in particular became a harsh critic of earlier socialism he described as utopian. Utopias have also been imagined by the opposite side of the political spectrum. For example, Robert A. Heinlein's The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress portrays an individualistic and libertarian utopia. Capitalist utopias of this sort are generally based on free market economies, in which the presupposition is that private enterprise and personal initiative without an institution of coercion, government, provides the greatest opportunity for achievement and progress of both the individual and society as a whole.

Answer questions 1 to 5 by choosing the correct letter A to F .

Which of the writers below...

A) Sir Thomas More

B) Plato

C) Edward Bellamy

D) William Morris

E) Karl Marx

F) Robert A. Heinlein

1. imagined a utopia based on individual freedom?

2. first used the word ‘utopia’?

3. wrote about a bureaucratic socialist utopia?

4. first described a utopian society? 5. distanced himself from utopian socialism?


4. BÀI 4

Chores for children

Assigning new jobs for children as they mature will develop their work ethic, says Gregg Murset, CEO of BusyKid, a chore and allowance tracking app. “The most important thing is to challenge them,” he says. “Once they have some proficiency you need to make them stretch to do the next job.” Mr. Murset, a father of six children ages 10 to 20, believes parents should teach children to do housework when they’re young, no matter if it yields imperfect results. “Even though it’s easier to just clean the toilet by yourself and be done with it, you have to take the long view and realise that these fundamental life skills are so important,” he says.

Attaching an allowance to chores teaches children not to expect handouts, says Michael Eisenberg, a financial advisor and member of the National Financial Literacy Commission. “At earlier ages, it instills within children the reality that you do something and you get paid for it,” he says. “Later on in life, they learn that the only way we get money is if we produce stuff at our jobs.” Some 68% of U.S. parents say they pay an allowance to their children, at an average rate of $67.80 per month, according to a 2016 survey of 1,005 adults. More than 80% of respondents who pay an allowance say they want to teach their child the value of money and financial responsibility, the survey found.

Who expressed the four opinions below? Answer by choosing A, B or C.

1) Children should learn that you don’t get something for nothing.
2) Parents should give their children tasks of increasing difficulty.
3) Children should learn to manage their money carefully.
4) Parents should think about the future benefits of giving chores to their children.

A Gregg Murset
B Michael Eisenberg
C most American parents

5. BÀI 5

Read the following passage about the history of the computer.

The history of the computer can be traced back around 2000 years to the birth of the abacus. However, construction of the first digital computer is usually attributed to the French inventor Blaise Pascal. In 1642, Pascal built a mechanical calculating machine which added numbers entered with dials. In the early 19th century, Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer, originated the concept of a programmable computer. His ‘Analytical Engine’ incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms.

The era of modern computing began with a flurry of development before and during World War II. The ‘Z2’ was one of the earliest examples of an electro-mechanical relay computer, and was created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in 1939. In the same year, electro-mechanical devices called bombes were built by British cryptologists to help decipher secret wartime messages. The initial design of the bombe was produced by Alan Turing, who was the first scientist to describe the principle of the modern computer. He proved that a machine would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as an algorithm.

The Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed ‘Baby’, was the world's first stored-program computer. It was invented by Frederic Williams and Tom Kilburn, and ran its first program in 1948. Although the computer was considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its time, it was the first working machine to contain all of the elements essential to a modern electronic computer.

Which scientist or inventor...

  1. designed a computer to aid military intelligence gathering?
  2. introduced the concept of the computer as a programmable machine?
  3. built the first electronic computer that had all the basic features of the computers we use today?
  4. built the first mechanical computer?

Choose your answers from the following list:

A - Blaise Pascal
B - Charles Babbage
C - Konrad Zuse
D - Alan Turing
E - Frederic Williams and Tom Kilburn

6. BÀI 6

Read the following passage about the tutorial method of teaching, which is used in some universities.

A) The tutorial method of teaching, where students are taught individually or in very small groups of two or three, developed as the collegiate system in Oxford and Cambridge Universities established itself. Teaching has existed in Oxford since the 11th century, and the role of tutors was documented in the 15th century, when Oxford tutors were described as ‘having responsibility for the conduct and instruction of their younger colleagues’ (Moore, 1968). Thus, the early role of the tutor was both pastoral as well as academic.

B) One of the foundations of Oxford’s academic excellence is the dialectic of the individual, discussion-based tutorial which is reputed to have reached its unique status in the middle of the 19th century. Professor Benjamin Jowett, classicist and Master of Balliol College, Oxford, is traditionally credited with having been the guiding influence behind the establishment of the tutorial system based on the Socratic method. His students said of Jowett, ‘his great skill consisted, like Socrates, in helping us to learn and think for ourselves’ (Markham, 1967). When Jowett took up the mantle of Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University in 1882, his teaching method of Socratic dialogue became established as a ‘pattern for the whole university’ (Markham, 1967).

C) In the last decade, multiple studies have been conducted exploring the unique learning benefits of the tutorial method. 130 years after it was formally established as the cornerstone of Oxford education, the tutorial method retains its prestige and effectiveness. As the present university website states, it is through the tutorial system that ‘students develop powers of independent and critical thought, analytical and problem-solving abilities, and skills in both written and oral communication and argument'.

(Source: http://www.greenes.org.uk/our-history/the-history-of-the-tutorial/)

Which paragraph contains the information in the statements below?

1. The tutorial is still a key part of the Oxford education system.
2. The tutorial method encourages students to learn independently.
3. The tutorial method features in Oxford University marketing.
4. Traditionally, Oxford tutors had more than just an academic role.

7. BÀI 7

The space agency NASA proposes six "lunar exploration themes" to answer the question, "Why should we return to the Moon?"

Match each heading from the following list with one of the themes described below.

A) Economic Expansion
B) Scientific Knowledge
C) Global Partnerships
D) Human Civilisation
E) Public Engagement
F) Exploration Preparation

1. Extend human presence to the Moon to enable eventual settlement.

2. Pursue scientific activities that address fundamental questions about the history of Earth, the solar system and the universe; and therefore, about our place in them.

3. Test technologies, systems, flight operations and exploration techniques to reduce the risks and increase the productivity of future missions to Mars and beyond.

4. Provide a challenging, shared and peaceful activity that unites nations in pursuit of common objectives.

5. Expand Earth's economic sphere, and conduct lunar activities with benefits to life on the home planet.

6. Use a lively space exploration program to engage the public, encourage students and help develop the high-technology workforce that will be required to address the challenges of tomorrow.

8. BÀI 8

Read the following passage about the meaning of 'genius'.

A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of an unprecedented leap of insight. Various philosophers have proposed definitions of what genius is.

In the philosophy of David Hume, a genius is seen by others as a person disconnected from society, who works remotely, away from the rest of the world. For Immanuel Kant, genius is the ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person. Arthur Schopenhauer defined a genius as someone in whom intellect predominates over "will". According to Bertrand Russell, a genius possesses unique qualities and talents that make him or her especially valuable to society.

Match each of the following statements to one of the philosophers below.

1. A genius is someone who does not require instruction.
2. We tend to regard geniuses as solitary figures.
3. A genius has the ability to make an exceptional contribution to society.

A) Hume
B) Kant
C) Schopenhauer
D) Russell

9. BÀI 9

Read the following paragraphs, taken from The Guardian newspaper.

A) The hunt for intelligent species outside Earth may be a staple of literature and film – but it is happening in real life, too. Nasa probes are on the lookout for planets outside our solar system, and astronomers are carefully listening for any messages being beamed through space. How awe-inspiring it would be to get confirmation that we are not alone in the universe, to finally speak to an alien race. Wouldn't it?

B) Well no, according to the eminent physicist Stephen Hawking. "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans," Hawking has said in a forthcoming documentary made for the Discovery Channel. He argues that, instead of trying to find and communicate with life in the cosmos, humans would be better off doing everything they can to avoid contact.

C) Hawking believes that, based on the sheer number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life-form in the universe. There are, after all, billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication.

Match each paragraph with one of the headings below.

  1. A pessimistic prediction.
  2. The probability of life existing on other planets.
  3. Astronomers send messages through space.
  4. How to avoid contact with aliens.
  5. The search for alien life-forms.
  6. Life-forms exist on other planets.


  • Elementary
  • Adequate
  • Conscious
  • Aggression
  • Expansive
  • Solidary
  • Equilibrium

Exercise 1 + 2 +3

  • Excessive
  • predictable ->unpredictable
  • Bureaucratic
  • Socialism -> socialist 
  • Coercion

Exercise 4 + 5+ 6

  • Proficiency
  • Fundamental
  • Instill
  • Primitive
  • Algorithm
  • Analytical

Exercise 8

  • Exceptional
  • Unprecedented
  • Philosopher
  • Eminent
  • Orbit
  • Interstella

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