Vừa qua, Tổng thống Nga - Putin đã tuyên bố phê duyệt vắc-xin chống virut Corona, trở thành quốc gia đầu tiên dẫn đầu trong việc tìm kiếm phương pháp chống lại dịch bệnh ngày một lan rộng này. Bên cạnh hướng dẫn cách đọc sách hiệu quả (ứng dùng vào việc học IELTS) trong mùa cách ly, IELTS TUTOR phân tích từ vựng và cấu trúc qua bài báo Russia Approves Coronavirus Vaccine Before Completing Tests để các em cập nhật thông tin cũng như học thêm từ mới nhé.
I. Đoạn báo IELTS TUTOR phân tích
MOSCOW — Russia has become the first country in the world to approve a vaccine for the coronavirus, President Vladimir V. Putin announced on Tuesday, though global health authorities say the vaccine has yet to complete critical, late-stage clinical trials to determine its safety and effectiveness.
Mr. Putin, who told a cabinet meeting on Tuesday morning that the vaccine “works effectively enough,” said that his own daughter had taken it. And in a congratulatory note to the nation, he thanked the scientists who developed the vaccine for “this first, very important step for our country, and generally for the whole world.”
The major powers are locked in a global race for a vaccine that President Trump, Mr. Putin and China’s president, Xi Jinping, are treating as a proxy war for their personal leadership and competing national systems. The United States, with an effort called Operation Warp Speed, and China have poured billions into the pursuit, and health officials worry that Russia is trying to snatch a victory by cutting corners.
By skipping large-scale clinical trials, the Russian dash for a vaccine has raised widespread concern that it is circumventing vital steps — and potentially endangering people — in order to score global propaganda points.
Russia’s vaccine sped through early monkey and human trials with apparent success. But Moscow was cautioned just last week by the World Health Organization not to stray from the usual methods of testing a vaccine for safety and efficacy.
Beyond that, the United States, Canadian and British governments have all accused Russian state hackers of trying to steal vaccine research. Russian officials have denied the accusations, and say their vaccine is based on a design developed years ago by Russian scientists to counter the Ebola virus.
[...] In Moscow, the announcement was greeted with a mixture of national pride and nagging doubts by Russians who have been schooled by experience to treat such boasts with a healthy dose of skepticism.
Lidiya Ivleva, 70, a retired nurse out for a walk in a Moscow park Tuesday afternoon, embodied both sentiments. While calling the vaccine “a great achievement” for Russian scientists, she said she would not rush to get it herself because of the “hasty” testing.
[...] Vaccines generally go through three stages of human testing before being approved for widespread use. The first two phases test the vaccine on relatively small groups of people to see if it causes harm and stimulates the immune system. The last phase, known as Phase 3, compares the vaccine to a placebo in tens of thousands of people.
The Russian scientific body that developed the vaccine, the Gamaleya Institute, has yet to conduct Phase 3 trials.
That final phase, however, is the only way to know with statistical certainty whether a vaccine can prevent an infection, and how effective it is. And because it tests a much larger group of people, a Phase 3 trial can also detect more subtle adverse effects of a vaccine that earlier trials could not.
Experts warn that, among other things, a faulty vaccine could actually render those inoculated more vulnerable to severe forms of Covid-19, the disease caused by the virus, a potential disaster that can be ruled out only through extensive testing on human volunteers.
[...] Mr. Dmitriev said Russia relied on a formidable legacy of research into viruses and vaccines in the Soviet Union, and had focused on established technologies, like the approach already used for the Ebola vaccine.
[...] If successful, the vaccine could become a geopolitical boon for Russia, recalling the Soviet Union’s mass exports of cheap vaccines to the developing world during the Cold War. Russia has already received orders for 1 billion doses from 20 countries and plans to manufacture the vaccine in Brazil, India, South Korea, Saudi Arabia and Cuba, according to the Gamaleya Institute.
II. Phân tích từ vựng & cấu trúc tác giả sử dụng trong bài báo
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